# Difference between revisions of "Mitochondrion"

This article describes an organelle, a cell component with its own distinctive structure and function. In eukaryotic cells, this is bounded by its own membrane, which is a lipid bilayer made of phospholipid.

Mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells whose primary function is to carry out aerobic respiration, i.e., convert energy from a relatively more hard-to-use form (pyruvates) to energy stored in the form of ATP.

## Summary

Item Value
Type of organisms whose cells contain mitochondria eukaryotic cells only, both plant cells and animal cells
Type of cells within the organisms that contain mitochondria All (?) cells
Number of mitochondria per cell 1 to 1000s, depending on the energy needs of the cell
Size ${\displaystyle 0.5-10\mu m}$ per mitochondrion. In some cells, it could take up to 1/5 of the cell volume
Location within cell ?
Structural components outer mitochondrial membrane, intermembrane space, inner mitochondrial membrane, cristae, mitochondrial matrix
Chemical constituents lots of proteins
Control of the entry and exit of materials Membranes (hydrophilic/hydrophobic issues), the TIM/TOM complex
Function aerobic respiration, i.e., ATP synthesis
Control of cell cycle
Cellular differentiation
Cell growth
Cell death
Evolutionary origin endosymbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin -- the mitochondria are evolutionary descendants of endosymbionts (organisms living in the cell in a mutually beneficial relationship with their host)
Variation between individuals Mitochondria have their own DNA which (in most eukaryotic organisms) is inherited from the mother. In addition, some of the behavior of the mitochondria is controlled by nuclear DNA.