Cell cycle

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Definition

The cell cycle is the entire timeline starting with a single, newly created eukaryotic cell and till it has finished dividing into two daughter cells. The term "cycle" refers to the idea that upon the completion of the cell cycle for a cell finishes, the cell cycle begins for both of its daughter cells.

States and phases of the cell cycle

The cell cycle is divided into three states; the middle state is further divided into three phases. The list of states and phases is as below:

State Phase Abbreviation What happens Approximate duration in the case of the 24-hour cell cycle for human cells
Resting Gap 0 G0 The cell, that has just been created, is resting. (could vary in length, from a few hours to several days, depending on how quickly the cell needs to grow)
Interphase Gap 1 G1 Cell growth. The G1 checkpoint ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis. 11
Interphase Synthesis S DNA replication 8
Interphase Gap 2 G2 Growth and preparation for mitosis. The G2 checkpoint ensures that everything is ready to enter the M (mitosis) phase and divide. 4
Cell division Mitosis M Cell division occurs. The Metaphase Checkpoint ensures that the cell is ready to complete cell division. 1

Terminal cells

For cells that do not have plans to further replicate, they are in a long-term G0 phase.